14th September 2022:

Really pleased that two new papers on Neolithic cereal cultivation and culinary practices in Scotland are just out 😊:

Bishop, R.R., Gröcke, D.R., Ralston, I., Clarke, D., Lee, D.H.J., Shepherd, A., Thomas, A.S., Rowley-Conwy, P.A. & Church, M.J. 2022. Scotland’s first farmers: new insights into early farming practices in north-west Europe. Antiquity. 

Hammann, S., Bishop, R .R., Copper, M., Garrow, D., Greenwood, C., Hewson, L., Sheridan, A., Sturt, F., Whelton, H. L., and Cramp, L. J. E. 2022. Neolithic culinary traditions revealed by cereal, milk and meat lipids in pottery from Scottish crannogs. Nature Communications 13: 5045.

24th August 2022:

Really excited to see my new paper on Mesolithic plant root foods out in Vegetation History and Archaeobotany! 😊

Bishop, R. R., Kubiak-Martens, L., Warren, G. M., and Church, M. J. 2022. Getting to the root of the problem: new evidence for the use of plant root foods in Mesolithic hunter-gatherer subsistence in Europe. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany.

18th January 2022:

I’m very excited that my new paper on the importance of root/rhizome foods in Mesolithic hunter-gatherer subsistence in Europe has just come out in World Archaeology 😊

Bishop, R. R. 2021. Hunter-gatherer carbohydrate consumption: plant roots and rhizomes as staple foods in Mesolithic Europe. World Archaeology 53(2):175-199. DOI:10.1080/00438243.2021.2002715

24th August 2020:

I have moved to Stavanger in Norway! I’m now based at the Museum of Archaeology at the University of Stavanger: I’ve been busy settling in to my new position and exploring the local area. Here are some pictures from around the town 😃 :

Stavanger harbour
Gamle Stavanger (Old Stavanger) – beautiful area of preserved 19th century housing, dating to 1820-1870.
View of the Iron Age Farm (Jernaldergården) Museum above Hafrsfjord, Stavanger.
The reconstructed houses are built on the site of the original farm,
which was dated to c. AD 350 – 550.
View of the Sverd i fjell Monument at Hafrsfjord, Stavanger, built in 1983. It commemorates the battle of Hafrsfjord, which is traditionally thought to have taken place here in c. AD 872, resulting in the unification of Norway.

5th-10th August 2019:

I attended a British Council Researcher Links workshop on the “Archaeology and Cultural Geography of Arctic and Subarctic Coastal Regions” in Arkhangelsk and the Solovetsky Islands in Northern Russia. The workshop provided an opportunity for early career researchers from the UK and Russia to meet and share their research with each other, as well as with established British and Russian researchers working in this field. 

The workshop involved a series of presentations, group activities and discussions, lectures from leading academics, as well as visits and tours of archaeological museums and sites. This included visits to the Belomorsk petroglyphs (a prehistoric rock art site), the probable prehistoric stone-built ‘Labyrinths’ on Bolshoy Zayatsky Island and the 15th century monastery on the Solovetsky Islands World Heritage site. The remote location of many of the sites meant that a diverse variety of transport was used during the trip, including overnight trains and boats of various kinds (ferries, speedboats, and even a reconstructed sailing ship)! 

Belomorsk petroglyphs (a prehistoric rock art site).
Probable prehistoric stone-built ‘Labyrinths’ on Bolshoy Zayatsky Island.
The Solovetsky monastery (World Heritage site) and the reconstructed sailing ship transporting the workshop participants to Bolshoy Zayatsky Island.

During the workshop, each of the participants presented short summaries of their research (in English or Russian) to the other participants and as the workshop was multilingual all the presentations were fully translated. The workshop was an excellent opportunity to connect with like-minded international researchers and to gain further insights into the key research undertaken by other researchers working in Arctic and sub-Arctic regions. The archaeology was also superb and it was a great opportunity to be given the chance to visit some of the fantastic heritage sites in the region. The group are now working on a group project to show-case the research links between the different interdisciplinary research undertaken by the group and a short film is currently being made of the event to share on the web.

Thanks to Dr Komali Kantamaneni for taking this photo of me during my presentation at the workshop.

July 2019:

Up on fieldwork in the Cairngorm mountains, looking for Mesolithic sites with Prof. Graeme Warren and team ( Photo Credit: Graeme Warren.

19th of June 2019:

I’m very excited that my paper on hazelnut charring has just come out in the Journal of Archaeological Science Reports.

Bishop, R. R. 2019. Experiments on the effects of charring on hazelnuts and their representation in the archaeological record.Journal of Archaeological Science Reports 26: 101839.

3rd-8th of June 2019: International Workgroup for Palaeoethnobotany, IWGP, Lecce, Italy.

I was very pleased to present my paper entitled, Nuts about the Mesolithic? Experimental and archaeological insights into hazelnut taphonomy” at the IWGP conference in Lecce. The paper was part of collaborative research project with: Mike Church, Graeme Warren, Barry Taylor, Amy Gray-Jones, John Lawson and Rob Engl. The experiments will form part of 2 papers: one focusing on the furnace charring of different hazelnut components, and the other paper will use actualistic experiments (roasting pits and hearth charring experiments) and the analysis of archaeological hazelnut assemblages to examine the taphonomy of hazelnut shell in the archaeological record.

Thanks to Dr Michael Wallace (University of Sheffield) for taking this photo of me during my presentation!:

28th-30thJanuary 2019: PAGES Landcover6k Workshop: “Land-use and land-cover for Climate Modelling”,
Hemmenhofen, Germany

I was delighted to receive a Scottish Archaeological Research Framework (ScARF) and Society of Antiquaries of Scotland Early Career Researcher Bursary to enable me to attend the Past Global Changes (PAGES) Landcover6k Europe “Land-use and land-cover for Climate Modelling” workshop in Germany from 28th-30thJanuary 2019. The workshop was kindly hosted by Dr Elena Marinova in the Research Centre for Wetland Archaeology in Hemmenhofen, a dedicated wetland archaeological research institute overlooking Lake Constance, where numerous exceptionally well-preserved prehistoric pile dwellings have been discovered. The Europe group is led by Dr Nicki Whitehouse (University of Plymouth), Prof. Marco Madella (UPF, Barcelona, Spain) and Dr Ferran Antolin (University of Basel). Dr Marc Vander Linden (University of Cambridge) is the data manager for the group. 

As a member of the Landcover6kEurope group, I previously attended 2 workshops in 2018 (both in Barcelona, Spain) as part of this project and the workshop in January built on the discussion and research that has been undertaken by the group over the past year. My attendance at the workshop provided me with an excellent opportunity to connect with international researchers and to contribute to a global initiative that will inform climate change models, which deal with one of the biggest global challenges for the 21st century – accurately predicting future climate change. As part of the project, I am collaborating to incorporate information on land use in Scotland at 4000 cal BC (+/- 250 years) into maps of European land use using information from my doctoral research on Mesolithic and Neolithic plant use (Bishop et al 2009, 2013). The period 4250-3750 cal BC presents specific challenges for British and Irish archaeological datasets because it represents the key period of change from hunter-gathering to agriculture. During the workshop there were detailed discussions about how to map this transition. The workshop was very productive and enjoyable, and I look forward to contributing further to the project as it progresses.

PAGES Landcover6k project

The PAGES Landcover6k project aims to generate maps of global land cover (vegetation: pollen data) and land use (human practices: archaeological and historical data) change throughout the Holocene, which will be used to inform and evaluate existing models of climate change ( In order to create accurate reconstructions of past and future climate change, it is necessary to understand the changing scale and nature of past human impacts on land cover through time. People have dramatically transformed their environments over the past 10,000 years, for instance through the creation and maintenance of open land for farming, and through deforestation as a result of fuel and timber procurement (Morrison et al 2018). Prehistoric hunter-gatherers also likely influenced land cover through the management of vegetation using land-scale level burning (Bishop et al 2015). These humanly caused land-cover changes resulted in modifications to the carbon cycle and increased CO2emissions (Harrison et al 2018). However, current models of pre-industrial land use have been constructed using estimates of past populations and the amount of arable/pasture land needed per person, rather than detailed archaeological or historical data (ibid). Therefore, the extent to which prehistoric and historic human impacts on land cover caused shifts in climate remains uncertain (ibid). The PAGES Landcover6k project seeks to address this by developing global land-use maps based on archaeological data for 3 major time-slices: 12,000, 6000 and 4000 cal BP.

PAGES Landcover6k Workshop January 2019

An interdisciplinary group of European researchers – archaeobotanists, zooarchaeologists, landscape archaeologists, and environmental scientists – attended the January meeting in Hemmenhofen. 

The workshop focused on several key themes:

  1. Evaluating the project methodologies for mapping land-use and considering how far the current archaeological data synthesis was meeting the minimum requirements of the climate modelling community. 
  2. Evaluating initial regional European land-use maps for the period 4250-3750 cal BC. 
  3. Refining definitions of land-use for global mapping and the categories for the accompanying database of sites.
  4. Data ownership and plans for future publications from the project.

Day one involved a series of presentations from different participants. The workshop began with a welcome address from Renate Ebersbach, the Director of the Research Centre. Following this, the European group coordinators, Nicki Whitehouse and Marco Madella, updated the group on progress since the previous meeting, and introduced the agenda for the workshop and publication plans. 

Oliver Boles (University of Pennsylvania) presented the definitions of land-use that will be used for mapping and there was discussion of the standardised categories to be used for the database of site information to accompany the maps. It is necessary to develop standardised definitions of different types of land-use (e.g. hunter-gathering, pastoralism, agriculture) to enable global comparisons to be made (Morrison et al 2018). The workshop built on previous extensive discussions of these categories, focusing on defining when an area of land should be classified as “Agriculture” as opposed to “Hunting, foraging, fishing”. It was concluded that a specific percentage threshold for land surface covered by agriculture was not required for defining which land use category to use. 

This discussion was followed by a series of papers reviewing methodological issues for modelling past land use. Marc Vander Linden (University of Cambridge) updated the group on the site mapping that had been undertaken since the previous meeting and explained the decision to use kernel densities to map European land use. Sandy Harrison (University of Reading) then outlined the types of information that are needed as input into climate models and how archaeologists can provide relevant data or improve existing estimates based on expert knowledge. Key information modellers require include: the dates of first agriculture and percentage of agricultural land, estimates of population growth, how much biomass was removed (% of different crops, domestic animals, kg/m2 of wood and nuts harvested) and the mix of C3 versus C4 crop plants grown. Finally, Tilman Baum (University of Basel) discussed a modelling land use case-study in the Alpine Foreland using agent based simulations which provided land-area estimates of different types of land use.

In the second part of the meeting, the preliminary land use maps which had been generated at a previous meeting in May 2018 (Whitehouse et al 2018) were evaluated by regional sub-groups (North-West Europe, Central Europe, South-West Europe) to establish data-gaps and errors. The initial maps were constructed using expert knowledge, together with a European database of radiocarbon dates collated by Marc Vander Linden and subsequent data collections by the group. 

Day 2 focused on refining the standardised categories which will be used in the database of sites which will accompany the maps, and discussing the plans for papers that will be produced from the project by the European group.

Future Research

The project team are currently working to fill in gaps in data-sets. The aim is to produce initial land-use maps using basic top-level classifications of land-use (e.g. hunter-gathering/agriculture) to allow climate modellers to test whether human impacts on land cover in prehistory were large enough to influence climate change. The datasets will be increasingly refined and used to produce more detailed maps which will incorporate information on different hunting and gathering, farming, and fuel procurement strategies. It is hoped that the final output of the project will prove useful for both the modelling and archaeological communities.


Bishop, R. R., Church, M. J. & Rowley-Conwy, P. A.  2009. Cereals, fruits and nuts in the Scottish Neolithic. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 139:47-103.

Bishop, R. R., Church, M. J. & Rowley-Conwy, P. A.  2014. Seeds, fruits and nuts in the Scottish Mesolithic. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 143(2013):9–71.

Bishop, R. R., Church, M. J. & Rowley-Conwy, P. A. 2015. Firewood, food and niche construction: the potential role of Mesolithic hunter-gatherers in actively structuring Scotland’s woodlands. Quaternary Science Reviews108:51-75.

Harrison, S. P., Stocker, B. D., Goldewijk, K. K., Kaplan, J. O.and Braconnot, P. 2018. Do we need to include anthropogenic land-use and land-cover changes in paleoclimate simulations? Pages Magazine26(1):4-5.

Morrison, K.D., Hammer, E., Popova, L., Madella, M., Whitehouse, N., Gaillard, M.-J., Aleru, J., Ibadan, U., Arroyo-Kalin, M., Bauer, A., Betancourt, C., Biagetti, S., Bishop, R., Boles, O., Clement, C.R., Cruz, P., Dennis, B.S., Ekblom, A., Elizabeth, K., Ellis, E., Flantua, S., Foster, T., Gronenborn, D., Hannaford, M., Iriarte, J., Junqueira, A., Kay, A., Klein-Goldewijk, K., Kolář, J., Lancelotti, C., Lane, P., Leclerc, C., Ledru, M.-P., Lemmen, C., Levis, C., Lombardo, U., Maezumi, S., Manyanga, M., Marchant, R., Maughan, N., Mayle, F., McMichael, C., Monprapussorn, S., Moraes, C.P., Muchena, R., Neves, E.G., Pandey, S., Phelps, L., Pinke, Z., Riris, P., Rostain, S., Russel, T., Saini, R., Schmidt, M.J., Shikoni, A., Sluyter, A., Ssemulende, R., Stump, D., Styring, A., Sultan, B., Szabo, P., Tamanaha, E., Tello, E., Thomas, E., Vanniere, B., Wandsnider, L., Widgren, M. 2018. Global-scale comparisons of human land use: developing shared terminology for land-use practices for global change. Pages Magazine 26(1):8-9.

Whitehouse, N., Madella, M.and Antolín, F. 2018.European land-use at 6000 BP: from on-site data to the large-scale view. PagesMagazine26(2).

7th-11th Jan 2019: North Uist, Western Isles Symposium

I was very grateful to receive a Scottish Archaeological Research Framework (ScARF) and Society of Antiquaries of Scotland ECR Bursary to enable me to attend the Scottish Islands Research Framework for Archaeology (SIRFA) opening symposium on North Uist. My attendance at the symposium provided we with an excellent opportunity to connect with like-minded researchers and professionals and to gain further insights into the key research undertaken by other researchers in the region, as well as to contribute my knowledge to the SIRFA research agenda. It was also great to be given the chance to visit some of the fantastic archaeology on North Uist with knowledgeable local experts.

The main thematic and period-based sessions that I attended at the symposium were the Economy and Subsistence (chairs: Jacqui Mulville, Cardiff University and Julie Gibson, Orkney Islands Council) and Early Prehistory (Chairs: Caroline Wickham-Jones, University of Aberdeen and Alison Sheridan, National Museums of Scotland) sessions. Both sessions provided stimulating and useful discussion, and as an archaeobotanist specialising in Mesolithic-Neolithic archaeology in Scotland, I was able to contribute information and knowledge from my research into the discussions in these sessions. As part of my doctoral research, I co-directed small-scale excavations of the only known Mesolithic sites in the Western Isles, at Northton and Temple Bay on Harris and at Tràigh na Beirigh on Lewis (co-director Prof. Mike Church, Durham University, UK), and I am currently undertaking post-doctoral research on the Mesolithic plant remains from the site at Northton as part of a University College Dublin (PI: Prof. Graeme Warren, UCD, Ireland) funded project to investigate the importance of edible roots and tubers in hunter-gatherer subsistence. It was great to be able to feed this information into the agenda, and to discuss ways forward for locating additional Mesolithic sites in the Western Isles with other researchers. This is a key issue, given the extreme variety of Mesolithic sites in the Western Isles, and presents a challenge for archaeologists to locate sites where coastal change, peat and machair, as well as later archaeology has hidden the ephemeral traces of hunter-gatherer settlement and subsistence.

Overall it was a very enjoyable and useful conference, and I look forward to contributing further to Scottish Islands Research Framework for Archaeology as it progresses.